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sábado, 31 de octubre de 2015

COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK

3. - THE CEFR (Common European framework)

The common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. The common European Framework provides a common basis for the elaboration of language syllabuses, curriculum guidelines, examinations, textbooks, etc. across Europe. It describes perfectly, what language learners have to learn to do in order to use a language for communication and what knowledge and skills they have to develop so as to be able to act effectively. The description also covers the cultural context in which language is set. The framework also defines levels of profiency which allow learners’ progress to be measured at each stage of learning and on a life-long basis.
Aims and objectives of CEFR
  • To promote the national and international collaboration of governmental and non-governmental institutions engaged in the development of methods of teaching and evaluation in the field of modern language learning and in the production and use of materials, including multi-media materials.
  • To take such steps are necessary to complete the establishment of an effective European system of information exchange covering all aspects of language learning, teaching and research, and making full use of information technology.
  • In addition to that, each European country offers curricular designs that set the objectives, contents and methodological principles to be followed locally.
  • It adopts an action-oriented approach, as it considers users and learners of a language primarily as social agents.
  • Language use and language learning is described as follows:
  • Language use, embracing language learning, comprises the actions performed by persons who as individuals and as social agents develop a range of competences, both general and in particular communicative language competences.
  • They draw on the competences to engage in language activities involving language processes to produce and/or receive texts in relation to themes in specific domains, activating those strategies which seem most appropriate for carrying out the tasks to be accomplished.
Competences: sum of knowledge and skills that allow a person to perform actions.
Two types of competences:
  • General competences: (knowledge, facts, concepts, principles, rules…)
  • Skills, procedures and strategies (procedural knowledge: knowing how to use declarative knowledge).
  • Attitudes and values.
  • Ability to learn
  • Communicative language competences empower a person to act using linguistic means.
  • Linguistic competences, which include lexical, semantic, phonological, syntactic knowledge and skills.
  • Sociolinguistic competences to do with the social conditions of language use: rules of politeness, gender, social groups, etc.
  • Pragmatic competences: These are concerned with the functional use of linguistic resources. They refer to language functions and speech acts.
Language activities: exercise of one’s communicative language competence in a specific domain. It involves:
  • Reception (listening, reading)
  • Production (speaking, writing)
  • Interaction (e.g. listening-speaking; reading-writing)
The context of language use: the events and situational factors in which communicative acts are embedded.
Domains: are spheres of action that contextualize language activities. They may be public, personal, educational and occupational.
Language tasks: Language tasks involve the reception, production, interaction or mediation of oral or written texts. If you have a definite propose you will probably reach it. When performing these tasks, the use of strategies is needed.
Situations may be described in terms of the locations and times at which they occur, the persons involved, the events that take place, the actions performed by the persons involved and the texts used in each situations.
A task refers to any purposeful action as necessary in order to achieve a given result in the context of a problem to be solved, an obligation to fulfill or an objective to be achieved. This definition would cover a wide range of actions such as moving a wardrobe, writing a book, obtaining certain conditions in the negotiation of a contract, playing a game of cards, ordering a meal in a restaurant, translating a foreign language text or preparing a class newspaper through group work.

The level of profiency
The Common European Framework divides learners into three broad divisions, divided, at the same time into six different levels.
A Basic user
A1 Breakthrough or beginner
A2 Waystage or elementary
B Independent user
B1 Threshold or intermediate
B2 Vantage or upper intermediate
C Proficient user
C1 Effective operational profiency or advanced
C2 Mastery or profiency

miércoles, 28 de octubre de 2015

PROGRAMAS VARIOS

Uno de los grandes avances que ha aportado Internet al mundo de la fotografía son los servicios de intercambio de instantáneas, que cada vez ofrecen más espacio, cuentan con más opciones de edición, cuestan menos -o son gratuitos- y son más sencillos de utilizar.

Facebook y otras redes sociales se han convertido en uno de los principales sitios en los que compartir fotografías. Sin embargo, aquellos que no solo quieren compartir, sino ordenar, editar y conservar la calidad, pueden elegir entre muchas opciones:

iDesktop.

Es una aplicación de búsqueda en el escritorio que permitía encontrar texto en mensajes de correo electrónico, archivos del equipo, chats y páginas web visitadas. El proyecto finalizó el 14 de septiembre de 2011.
Al habilitar su equipo para la búsqueda, el programa permitía acceder fácilmente a su información y así no tener que organizar manualmente archivos, mensajes, marcadores.
Tras descargarlo, la aplicación crea un índice de todo el contenido qe admitía búsquedas y lo almacenaba en el equipo para permitir encontrar la información con la misma facilidad con la que se realiza una búsqueda en internet mediante Google. A diferencia del software de búsqueda tradicional que se actualizaba diariamente, esta aplicación actualiza continuamente la mayor parte de archivos.




Para tener imágenes en la web, podemos utilizar diferentes programas como:
Picasa, que sirve para compartir las imágenes.
Es una herramienta web para visualizar, organizar y editar fotografía digitales. Posee un sitio web integrado para compartir fotos. Esta aplicación fe creada originalmente por una compañía llamada Lifescape en 2002 y es propiedad de Google desde el año 2004.
http://www.picasa.google.com/



Flickr, es un sitio web gratuito que permite almacenar, ordenar, buscar, vender y compartir fotografías y vídeos en línea, cuenta con una importante comunidad de usuarios que comparten las fotografías y vídeos creados por ellos mismos. Esta comunidad se rige por normas de comportamientos y condiciones de uso que favorecen la buena gestión de los contenidos.



Social Bookmarking, son redes sociales que permiten almacenar, clasificar y compartir enlaces en Internet o en una Intranet. Aquí os dejo algunos enlaces:
- http://www.digg.com/

- http://www.stumbleupon.com/

- https://delicious.com/

- https://www.diigo.com/

- https://www.chime.in/


Otra utilidad sería para reunir personas con mismos gustos y aficiones. 
Aquí os dejo una página que trata éste tema con más detalle.










lunes, 26 de octubre de 2015

Using images, sound and videos in the classroom.

Aquí os dejo un par de páginas muy interesantes que hemos visto en clase:

IMAGES


VIDEOS, SOUNDS AND MUSIC
  • http://www.freesound.org: free sound and music
  • JAMENDO: Free music to be used in podcasts, presentations, etc...
  • VIMEO: Sound and vimeo, many files which are not free.
VIDEO ON-LINE
  •  Animoto. 
AUDACITY
  •  Recording, editing and exporting audio.
  • Free software.  
  • It is neccesary to include another program to able to export the file into MP3: LAME (http://lame.sourceforge.net)

domingo, 25 de octubre de 2015

METHODS

GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD
The first level that we are going to analyze is the Grammar translation Method:
  • In the presentation, there is a long list of vocabulary items.
  • The vocabulary is always translated.
  • Phonetics
  • Explanation of the grammatical rules (they explain the grammatical rules in Spanish)
Main Objectives (till the XX century):
  • Reading and writing
  • Grammar structures and translation
  • Study of morphology and syntax.
  • Memorization of grammar rules and long list of vocabulary items.
  • Teacher-centered. (the teacher is the centre of the class)
  • Textbooks are fundamental.
Some aspects that can be analyzed:
  1. No use of the second language in the class, except for translation; they usually use Spanish and they use English only for translations.
  2. The vocabulary is learnt by memorizing long list.
  3. Reading and writing are the center of the class: no place for listening and speaking.
  4. Grammar and syntax are extremely important for language learning. Grammar is taught deductively.
Deductive: Teacher gives the rules and the students apply them.
Inductive: they need to deal with the English discovering.
This Grammar method should attach on the need and necessities that the students have. 

 
DIRECT METHOD
Classroom interaction was conducted exclusively in the target language (lengua como objeto de estudio). 
    1. Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught.
    2. Oral communication skills were built up in a carefully graded progression…
    3. Grammar was taught inductively.
    4. New teaching points were introduced orally.
    5. Concrete vocabulary was taught trough demonstration, objects and pictures…
    6. Both speech and listening comprehension were taught.
    7. Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized.
    Summing up/ Main objectives
  1. Objectives: Conversation, discussion.
  2. Use of the mother tongue is forbidden.
  3. Mainly oral production and listening.
  4. No translation.
  5. No grammar rules. Inductive.
  6. Lot of imagination and inspiration.
  7. Tiring for the teacher
  8. A problem for shy students.
Summary of a lesson:
  • Presentation of the topic in the target language.
  • Students repeat (chorus, whole class, groups, rows, …)
  • The teacher explains a topic normally from real life situations. She uses objects, mime, etc as the language used in the target language.
  • Use of songs and games in the classroom.
  • Use of wall charts, posters, and visual aids used in the classroom.
  • Listening and speaking are promoted from the very beginning.
Children at an early age like playing with the spoken language”.


AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD
  1.  
    The audio-lingual method, Army Method, or New Key, is a style of teaching used in teaching foreign languages. It is based on behaviorist theory, which professes that certain traits of living things, and in this case humans, could be trained through a system of reinforcement—correct use of a trait would receive positive feedback while incorrect use of that trait (cualidad) would receive negative feedback. They use vocabulary, phonetics, sentence patterns and the construction of drills.
    It makes use of Pattern Drilling
    AFFIRMATIVE/NEGATIVE
    I/you/we/they
    HAVE (‘VE)
    HAVE NOT (HAVEN’T)


    GOT
    A

    (NEW)

    Teacher
    HE
    SHE
    HAS (‘S)
    HAS NOT (HASN’T)

    THE

    (COLOUR)

    TV



    INTERROGATIVE
    HAVE
    I/YOU/WE/THEY
    GOT
    A
    TV?
    HAS
    SHE/HE/(IT*)
    THE
    TEACHER?

  2. Audio oral (lingual) Method
From 40s:
  • Listening and reading is after the teacher.
  • Drills: Mechanical oral exercises.
  • Teacher centered: the teacher is the one he do the most.
  • Grouping of students: group, pairs…
  • Language laboratory. New technology caught publishers and text-book writers unprepared.
  • Prevent errors as they can be remembered.

  1.  COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING METHOD (CLL)
    Community language learning (CLL) is an approach in which students work together to develop what aspects of a language they would like to learn. The teacher acts as a counsellor and a paraphraser, while the learner acts as a collaborator, although sometimes this role can be changed.
    Examples of these types of communities have recently arisen with the explosion of educational resources for language learning on the Web.
  2. It was created especially for adult learners who might fear to appear foolish.
  3. Teacher becomes a language counsellor
  4. Students work in small groups
  5. Teacher coordinates, guides, helps…
  6. Students feel confident
     
    SUGGESTOPEDIA METHOD
    Suggestopedia (US English) or Suggestopædia (UK English) is a teaching method developed by the Bulgarian psychotherapist Georgi Lozanov. It is used in different fields, but mostly in the field of foreign language learning. Lozanov has claimed that by using this method a teacher's students can learn a language approximately three to five times as quickly as through conventional teaching methods.
    Suggestopedia has been called a pseudoscience. It strongly depends on the trust that students develop towards the method by simply believing that it works
    The intended purpose of Suggestopedia was to enhance learning by tapping into the power of suggestion. Lozanov claims that “suggestopedia is a system for liberation”; liberation from the “preliminary negative concept regarding the difficulties in the process of learning” that is established throughout their life in the society.
  7. The only major linguistic problems in the language classroom are memorization and integration.
  8. The result of the appropriate use of suggestion is an enormous increase in the individual’s ability to learn. (lozanov)

          THE SILENT WAY
The Silent Way is commonly defined as a teaching method for foreign languages in which the teachers are mostly silent and use rods and charts as their main teaching tools. Although Silent Way teachers do use rods and charts most of the time there can be Silent Way teaching without these tools while at the same time there may be teachers who use the suggested tools but do not really follow the Silent Way.
  • Teaching should be subordinated to learning.
  • Students should be able to use the language for self expression.
  • Students become independent by relying on themselves (confiando en si mismos).
  • Only the learner can do learning.

  1. TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE (TPR) / COMPREHENSION APPROACH
     
    Total physical response (TPR) is a language-teaching method developed by James Asher, It is based on the coordination of language and physical movement. In TPR, instructors give commands to students in the target language, and students respond with whole-body actions. The method is an example of the comprehension approach to language teaching. Listening serves two purposes; it is both a means of understanding messages in the language being learned, and a means of learning the structure of the language itself. Grammar is not taught explicitly, but is induced from the language input.
     
    NATURAL APPROACH
  2. Observing how children acquire their mother tongue.
  3. The child chooses to speak when it is ready.
  4. The teacher helps his/her students to understand him/her by using pictures and occasional words in the students’ native language.
  5. Students are permitted to use their native language along with the target language.

martes, 20 de octubre de 2015

SCREENSHOTS AND SCREENCASTS



SCREENSHOTS AND SCREENCAST

SCREENSHOT: It is a an image taken by the computer to record the visible items displayed on the monitor, television, or another visual output device.
You can record the whole screen or part of it.
The image is converted and saaved to an image file such as JP(E)G o PNG format.

SCREENCAST: It is a digital recording of a computer screen output, also known as a video screen capture, often containing audio narration.
The term screencast compared with the related term screenshot.
Whereas screenshot is a picture of a computer screen, a screencast is essentially a movie of the changes over time that a user sees on a computer screen; enhanced with audio narration.

SOFTWARE:

CAMSTUDIO: Open Source Software
For window
Output formats: AVI y SWF

JING:
Capture an image of what you see on your computer screen.
Select any window or reion that you want to capture, mark up your screenshot with a text box, arrow, highlight or picture caption and decide how you want to share it.

Video Recording: Select any window or region that you would like to record, and you will capture everything that happens in that area.
From simple mouse movements to a fully narrated tutorial, Jing records everything you seem and also.
Jing videos are limited to five minutes for instant, focused communication.
Videos can be shared through social media.

WINK:
Open source software
Several output formats
For windows
You can capture screenshots, add explanations boxes, buttons, titles etc.

BB FLASHBACK EXPRESS:
The free version just allows swf and avi files.
For windows.

WEB BASED SCREENCASTS
You do not need any external software.
Just go to the web page and record.
The recording can be shared in social networks.

SCREENR:
Just clicking on the record button, capture the screen.
Share it through social networks.
It's free!
Nothing to be installed or downloaded.

SCREENCAST-O-MATIC:
Direct Recording.
Different resolutions can be selected.
Sound is also available.
Direct upload to the internet.
It gives you the Internet address.

NIMBUS: FIREFOX ADD-ON
Screen capture Web page.
Selected region or whole browser window.
Edit screenshots and save the images to a local file or Goople Drive.
Edit screenshots in a very user-friendly inter-face with the different tools.


lunes, 19 de octubre de 2015

THE FLIPPED CLASSROOM

The flipped classroom is a pedagogical model in which the typical lecture and homework elements of a course are reversed. Short video lectures are viewed by students at home before the class session, while in-class time is devoted to exercises, projects, or discussions. 

The notion of a flipped classroom draws on such concepts as active learning, student engagement, hybrid course design, and course podcasting.
There is no single model for the flipped classroom the term is widely used to describe almost any class structure that provides rerecorded lectures followed by in-class exercises. In one common model, students might view multiple lectures of five to seven minutes each. Online quizzes or activities can be interspersed to test what students have learned.
A growing number of higher education individual faculty have begun using the flipped model in their courses.

jueves, 15 de octubre de 2015

CALL

COMPUTER ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING (CALL)
  • Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) was defined by Levy as “the search for andstudy of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning”.
  • CALL embraces a wide range of applications and approaches to teaching and learning foreign languages.
  • From the Audio-lingual method (drill-based exercises), to most recent distance learning.

    It also extends to the use of interactive whiteboards, computer-mediated communication (CMC), language learning in virtual words, and mobile-assisted language (MALL).


viernes, 9 de octubre de 2015

EVOLUCIÓN DE LA EDUCACIÓN


El acelerado avance científico y tecnológico indudablemente toca el ámbito 
educativo y lo ha obligado a asumir nuevos retos para lograr elevar el nivel 
educativo de la población. La incorporación de la tecnología y comunicación a 
la educación proporcionan un gran potencial para fortalecer y transformar 
aspectos en el quehacer educativo. La incorporación de recursos didácticos 
con tecnología a la práctica docente permite incrementar las herramientas y 
servicios habituales que al ser aplicados en el aula da un giro a las clases 
tradicionales. 
Lo significativo de esto es no perder de vista que el uso de dichas herramientas 
fomenta un ambiente de exploración en clase y en el que el papel que 
docentes y alumnos asuman dentro del aula será siempre activo, de tal forma 
que su uso dará a la clase un sentido experimental e inductivo. 
El uso de la tecnología en educación representa un campo ilimitado de 
exploración; des-afortunadamente es en este campo es donde menos se utiliza . 
La computadora no solamente se puede percibir como un recurso 
administrativo que almacena y organiza datos; es en el campo de la educación 
en donde la Internet cobra su mayor potencial. 


miércoles, 7 de octubre de 2015

BLOG


Hoy en clase hemos aprendido varias cosas relacionadas con los blogs, lo cual me gustaría compartir con vosotros ya que a continuación se explican detalles muy interesantes acerca de su utilidad e incluso de como hacerse uno siguiendo un par de sencillos pasos:

1. CARACTERISTICAS
-          Son una forma revolucionaria del crecimiento de las webs
-          También llamados cuadernos de bitagora, son espacios webs que se actualizan periódicamente.
-          Se recopilan cronológicamente textos, artículos, etc.… de una o varias personas.
-          En primer lugar aparece siempre la última publicación ( tags: permiten buscar cuestiones que tú quieras de un blog, aunque estén pasadas)
-          El termino blog proviene de web, y log=diario
-          El termino bitagora se refiere a los antiguos cuadernos de barcos de bitagora
-          Hoy día los blog se han convertido en el medio más extendido de comunicación interpersonal
-          Es una herramienta colaborativa donde la gente comparte opiniones y e intereses.
-          Existen: you tuve, blogger, google docs, etc.
2. CREACION DE BLOGS
    Crear una cuenta gmail
     Entrar en: www.blogger.com
     Pulsar en crear blog
     Ponerle titulo al blog
     Escribir la dirección del blog
     Escoger una plantilla para el blog
     Confirmación de la creación del blog





3. PARA QUÉ SIRVEN
Para contactar con personas que comparten los mismos gustos e intereses que tú.
Para compartir experiencias e información
Organizar eventos, excursiones, reuniones, etc.

4.UTILIDAD EN EL COLEGIO (como herramienta para el docente)
ü  Construir sobre información previamente construida, no volver a empezar de nuevo, es decir, crear una base para siempre  (el blog consiste en producir información)
ü  Colaborar y compartir información con los blogs de otros profesores de otros centros.

ü  Poner información puntual sobre el progreso de los niños, excursiones, fotos, producciones de los alumnos, participación en actividades, para poner al día a los padres de los alumnos/as. (con el permiso de los padres por escrito).

domingo, 4 de octubre de 2015

SOFTWARE

SOFTWARE

FOSS / Proprietary software.

The term open source refers to software whose source code — the medium in which programmers create and modify software — is freely available on the Internet; by contrast, the source code for proprietary commercial software is usually a closely guarded secret.

The most well-known example of open source software is the Linux operating system, but there are open source software products available for every conceivable purpose.

Open source software is distributed under a variety of licensing terms, but almost all have two things in common: the software can be used without paying a license fee, and anyone can modify the software to add capabilities not envisaged by its originators.



ICTs IN PRIMARY EDUCATION



The use of ICT involves introducing new strategies and resources and can influence and even determine some aspects of the work in the classroom, the methodology, the type of grouping, and resource management, physical spaces and weather. Therefore, the educational use of ICT affects the traditional role assumed by teachers and can contribute to the search of new models and enriching education.
This course, eminently practical, allows teachers of primary education wonder together on some tools and different working methods in order to improve the processes of teaching and learning in different areas of the curriculum.
Learning is considered an active and collaborative process. Therefore, we want the forum to become a real space for meeting, as we consider essential and rewarding to share with others teachers individual experiences in the classroom.

Objectives:

* To think over working methods in the classroom in relation to the use of ICT.
* Analyze and review own practice in order to incorporate new resources and methodologies to the same strategies.

sábado, 3 de octubre de 2015

HARDWARE

The  term hadware refers to all tangible parts of a computer system.

The main component is  the motherboard :


It consists of:
C PU,  the central processing unit (the most expensive of the computer) and the main part.
-   MEMORY RAM,  where all data is stored.
CARDS.

Storage :                                                              
Disk.                                                                                                   
                                                                                                    


Hard drive.


 


USB.




Peripherals:  The drives or devices that allow the computer to communicate with the outside.


Mouse.









Keyboard.














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